🤑 Factsheet - Bidens pilosa (Blackjack)

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Blackjack oak is a common timber tree in forests that have been badly burned or are growing on the Trees & Plants image of Blackjack Oak Distribution Map.


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Western populations in Texas and Oklahoma are often recognized as Q. marilandica var. ashei. From the Image Gallery.


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Blackjack oak is a common timber tree in forests that have been badly burned or are growing on the Trees & Plants image of Blackjack Oak Distribution Map.


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Click on images to enlarge Blackjack, Spanish needle, hairy beggar ticks, farmer's friend, cobbler's pegs, pitchforks, kichoma mguu At the base of the plant, leaves tend to be simple and more or less oval in shape, higher up the plant.


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Ray florets absent or 3- ; lamina whitish to pinkish, mm. Habitat Top of page Bidens pilosa is a common weed of gardens, parks, pastures, roadsides, disturbed sites and waste areas near villages. Its leaf and root contain allelopathic substances that suppress the germination and establishment of seedlings of native plant species Khanh et al. Waterhouse considers the agromyzid flies as the most promising. Even when B. It is regarded as a major weed of sugarcane, maize, coffee, tea, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, bananas, beans, tobacco, soybean and citrus in many countries across tropical American, Asia and Africa. It is also grows as a weed in cultivated lands, pastures, and in extensive crops such as cereals, pulses and cotton Holm et al. Annual herbs, stems cm tall, glabrous or very sparsely pubescent in upper part. Taylor provides detailed documentation of medicinal properties and ethnic uses of rainforest plants, including B. Seeds may remain viable for years. The risk of new introduction of B. It thrives in a wide variety of soils with a pH ranging 4—9 and can tolerate a very high salinity, up to mM NaCl. Bidens pilosa has been reported to possess effective pharmacological properties like antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory and antiallergic activity, antimalarial activity, T helper cell modulator, immunosuppressive antihyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, antiulcerogenic, hepatoprotective, anti-leukemic, anticancer, antipyretic, anti-virus, anti-angiogenic, anti-rheumatic, antibiotic Bairwa et al. A single plant may produce up to seeds per year. In highly invaded areas, the dense thickets can also impede access to roads, trails, and recreational areas, and are a nuisance to travellers and tourists. For nine B. Currently it is listed as an agricultural and environmental weed in more than 40 countries. There was a significant, negative correlation between weed density and bean growth. A wide range of fungi have been detected in B. This species also has a long history of use by the indigenous people of the Amazon and virtually all parts of the plant are used. In Mexico, it is used to treat stomach disorders, haemorrhoids and diabetes and it also possesses antimicrobial properties Alvarez et al. Plants may start flowering six weeks after emergence and produce mature seeds four weeks after flowering. In Australia, for instance, it has been listed as a priority environmental weed in two Natural Resource Management regions and in southeastern Queensland it is considered to be among the top most invasive plant species Queensland Government, In Australia, dense thickets of B. Chemical control of B. In sub-Saharan Africa, its fresh or dried shoots and young leaves are eaten as a leaf vegetable, especially in times of food scarcity. This species is also adapted to grow in a wide range of habitats and soil types. It is also used as an indigenous leafy vegetable in southern Africa. A density of one plant resulted in a yield loss of 9. Disk florets ; corollas yellowish, 2- mm. Phenylheptatriyne, an insecticidal allelochemical extracted from B. Plant Type Top of page Annual Biennial Broadleaved Herbaceous Seed propagated Distribution Top of page Bidens pilosa is a cosmopolitan weed native to South and Central America, but it is now very widespread throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica, 43 2 ; 46 ref. Seeds are reported to have no dormancy, but may remain viable in the soil for years ISSG, There is usually a great flush of germination after tillage of the soil during the spring. Bidens pilosa can be recognized by the elongated bur-like fruits that bear recurved or hooked bristles which have played an important role in its spread Holm et al. It has the potential to grow rapidly forming dense stands that outcompete and eliminate crops and native vegetation. Planta Medica, 62 4 ; 20 ref. The dense thickets can also affect roads, rails and recreation areas and are nuisance to travellers and tourists. The leaf and the root contain allelopathic substances that suppress the germination and establishment of seedlings of native plant species. This species already has a widespread distribution across tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world where it behaves as a common weed of cultivated lands and pastures, but also of natural and semi-natural sites. Flooding reduces seed emergence and plant survival. Lepidoptera: Ctenuchidae - a new U. In Brazil, it may be seen all year round but the major period of growth is during spring and summer Kissmann and Groth, In North and Central America, this species flowers and produces fruits throughout the year Holm et al. Perth, Australia. Kissmann and Groth distinguish Bidens subalternans , on the basis that it has four awns on the achene, but other authors treat this as synonymous with B. The taxonomy of Bidens is still unsatisfactory and some authors have suggested that this genus should be merged with the closely related genus Coreopsis. Distribution Table Top of page The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. For example, in soyabean, yield losses between 9. Bidens pilosa is an aggressive weed that grows forming dense stands that outcompete and displace crop and native vegetation. Journal of Coffee Research, 22 2 Amaral A, Takaki M, Achene dimorphism in Bidens pilosa L. Due to the variable regulations around de registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control.

Bidens pilosa is a widespread weed of tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world.

Secondary and micro nutrient composition of blackjack plant images few common weeds of coffee plantations. Bidens biternata. This species has high reproductive potential and fast-growing rates, which are traits enabling it to rapidly This species has high blackjack plant images potential and fast-growing rates, which are traits enabling it to rapidly spread and colonize new areas.

Bidens pilosa can be controlled by persistent blackjack plant images, hoeing and hand pulling in order to prevent seed production Pope, The natural enemies of Blackjack plant images. It also has been reported as a crop seed contaminant Elliot et al.

Several other Bidens species can occur as weeds but are readily distinguished by their more divided leaves e. It benefits from disturbances and quickly invades after fire and soil tillage. Bidens pilosa is listed as a troublesome agricultural weed impacting at least 31 crops in over 40 countries.

Germination on B. The fungal pathogens in the list of natural enemies are all likely to be host specific and so they are also potential biological control agents. This species blackjack plant images not read more tolerant but is known to quickly invade burnt areas Galinato et al.

Empyreuma pugione L. Inflorescence of solitary blackjack plant images or capitula in lax corymbs. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Trials on coral limestone at Senbaru, Okinawa, Japan, showed that B. Under favourable conditions, B.

Competition primarily affected the number of pods per plant. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent blackjack plant images the product's label. Numerous varieties of B. It is also susceptible to infection by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Phillips, Bidens pilosa spreads by seeds.

Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 41 1 ; 12 ref.

The Igorots of Bontoc Philippines mix B. Its burs irritate people and livestock and the roots, leaves, and flowers are strongly phytotoxic and poisonous. The seeds of B. It also invades waterways, riverbanks, wetlands, forest margins, open woodlands, coastal forests, grasslands, valleys, and secondary forests at elevations from sea level to m Sankaran and Suresh, ; Davidse et al. Abd El-Ghani MM, Weed communities of date-palm orchards in the Feiran Oasis south Sinai, Egypt. Asteraceae as determined by germination test. Florida Entomologist, 61 4 Agriculture Western Australia, Weed Science, Invasive garden plants list. Seed harvested from central achenes has a higher germination rate than that harvested from the peripheral achenes. Shading caused by the weed was the factor most affecting the dry weight of above-ground bean plants Carvalho, Blanco et al. Seeds germinate on the soil surface or in shallow soil to a depth of 1 cm. Bioactive polyacetylenes from Bidens pilosa. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. It normally behaves as an annual weed but may also behave as a perennial Holm et al. Several biotypes of B. In this species, the fruits have tiny barbed hooks or stiff bristles that enable them to readily stick on humans clothes or the fur and feathers of passing animals as a means of dispersal.